Vygotsky’s approach

Vygotsky’s approach was the fundamental role of social interaction in the cognitive development. He focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act or interact in shared experiences. Vygotsky is most recognized for his concept of Zone of Proximal Development affecting the learning of children. Children who are in the zone of proximal advance for a specific task can almost perform the task independently, but not fully. However, with an appropriate amount of assistance, these children can accomplish the task successfully. The lower limit of a child’s zone of proximal development is the level of exploration and problem-solving reached by a child without any help. However, the upper limit, is referred to the level of additional responsibility that a child can receive with the support of a skilled partner. As children are verbally given prompts or even instructions helps guide themselves through tasks, they collect the information received in order to assist them in performing the task independently. This emphasis on the concept of Zone of Proximal Development made by Vygotsky highlights his belief that social influences, particularly instruction, are important on the cognitive development of children.