Why the wars of independence strengthen the landed aristocracy and the militar

  1. Why did the wars of independence strengthen the landed aristocracy and the military?
  2. What were the economic and social roots of caudillismo? (this will include a definition of caudillo)
  3. What was the program and significance of the Mexican Reforma?
  4. How did the early nineteenth-century approach to national development in Paraguay differ from the postcolonial experiences of Argentina and other Latin American nations?
  5. How did foreign interventions and class, racial, and ethnic conflicts shape early 19th century national development in the United Provinces of Central America?